Sunday, March 3, 2019
Periodic Table Research Task
cyclic fudge Research Task By Kevin Shaji snap off A. You be to research the task below and submit as a written piece of work i) washbowl Dalton proposed his nuclear possible action in 1808. Outline his theory. (4 marks) ii) Explain which part of Daltons atomic theory was ulterior found to be incorrect. (3 marks) iii) Dalton developed a way to measure the congeneric atomic mass of the different segments. Using examples research and describe the nitty-gritty of the term proportional atomic mass. (3 marks) i) 1) Elements are make up of tiny particles cal take atoms. 2) Atoms can non be destroyed or created but can be re position during chemical changes. ) Atoms of a particular fraction are identical in mass, size, baffle and other(a) properties. 4) Atoms of different genes are different in their mass, size, shape and other properties. 5) Atoms cannot be divided into sm in aller particles. 6) Atoms of different elements combine in small whole- fleck ratios to form com pounds. ii) 1) One part of Daltons atomic theory that was later break uped to be incorrect was the part where atoms could not be divided into smaller pieces. New research has proved that atoms can be sub-divided into sub-atomic particles like protons, neutrons and electrons. ) Due to the discovery of isotopes it has been discovered that atoms of the same element are not exactly identical. They read different masses due to the act of neutrons. 3) Also it has been discovered that different elements have the same mass. These elements are called isobars. 4) It has been latterly discovered that atoms can actually be destroyed by nuclear fission processes in atomic reactors or by atomic bombs. 5) Another deformity in Daltons atomic theory is that not all compounds have small whole-number ratios. They can actually have large whole-number ratios as well. ii) The intercourse atomic mass is defined as the average mass of the isotopes in a naturally occurring sample of the element, takin g into account the proportion of for each one isotope present. The symbol for relative atomic mass is Ar. For example naturally occurring centilitre has two isotopes Cl-35 and Cl-37. Cl-35 has a relative abundance (which is the percentage of that isotope on flat coat in relation to the total abundance of the atom on Earth) of 75% while Cl-37 has a relative abundance of 25%. To calculate the Ar you must put the above into a formula. Ar= (75/ light speed? 35) + (25/ coulomb? 37) =35. Another example of calculating relative atomic mass is For an element E with the naturally occurring isotopes aE, bE, cE, and with the respective abundances of A%, B%, C% etc, the relative atomic mass (Ar) = (A/100 x a) + (B/100 x b) + (C/100 x c) Part B Leucippus Leucippus was an archeozoic pre-Socratic old-fashioned Greek philosopher who lived erstwhile(prenominal) during the 5th century BCE. Not a good deal of Leucippus early life is cognize due to the fact that not many of his dates were reco rded. What we do know is that he was an Ionian Greek that studied at an Ionian domesticate of realistic philosophy.At around 440 BCE Leucippus founded a school at Abdera, which his famous pupil Democritus attended. roughly this date he proposed the theory of atomism. According to this atomism, the universe is composed of two elements the atoms and the void in which they exist and move. This theory was later explained in much greater detail by his pupil Democritus. Leucippus contributed indirectly towards the phylogenesis of the biyearly skirt since he proposed the first idea of atoms. Thanks to his ideas the foundation for the diurnal table was possible. Without his ideas the way we view the valet may be completely different.Democritus Democritus was an influential pre-Socratic ancient Greek philosopher who lived from circa 460 BCE to circa 370 BCE. He inherited his experiences vast fortunes and used it to travel the beingness and visit many countries on his quest of know ledge. During these trips he met many scholars who taught many lessons. When he finally came masking to his native land he became interested in natural philosophy. At the around 440 BCE he became associated with a school in Abdera, which was founded by Leucippus, his mentor. His instructor was the first one to propose atoms, but Democritus later adopted this into his avouch atomic theory.His theory stated that everything contains tiny particles called atoms and that they were indivisible. He hypothesised that these atoms cannot be destroyed, that they were imperceptible that they were always and moving. He also stated and that they differ in size, shape, mass, position, and arrangement. Democritus contributed indirectly to the development of the hourly table. His contribution helped people to understand what an atom was and helped other scientists further look into intuition of the atom, which in turn led to the creation of the atomic table. AristotleAristotle was an ancient G reek philosopher who lived from 384 BCE to 322 BCE. He was the student of the ancient Greek philosopher Plata and the teacher to one of the greatest military commanders in the world Alexander the Great. He taught many subjects including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theatre, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. He is considered to be one the just about important figures in Western philosophy due to his writings comprehend morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics.One of his most well-know theories is that all mater is do from five elements. These elements are fire, water, air, earth and the fifth element aether. He believed all matter was made from a combination of the four elements except the stars and planets which are made of the fifth element aether. Even though Aristotles theory was wrong he contributed indirectly to the oscillatory table. The biyearly table consists of elements and he hypothesised that elements exist. crapper Dalton John Dalton was an position pharmacist, meteorologist and physicist. He was born(p) on the 6th of September 1766 and died on the 27th of July 1844.He began to chew over at a local village school and at the age of 12 began to teach there. At the age of 15, he began to teach at a Quaker school in Kendal. laterward teaching here for 10 years he go to Manchester as a teacher. While there he joined the Manchester Literary and philosophical Society, which provided him laboratory facilities. The first paper he presented was about colour blindness which he suffered from. Dalton arrived to atomism by his fascination of meteorology. Dalton stated that the forces of repulsion imagination to cause pressure acted only in the midst of atoms of the same type.From here on he proceeded to calculate the atomic weight of atoms from percentage compositions of compounds. After this he developed his own atomic theory, which completely revolutionised the way w e see the world today. Dalton contributed indirectly to the development of the monthly table. Daltons information on atomic weights was a huge factor in the creation the hourly table. He also proposed a chemical symbols for some elements. Without Daltons ground-breaking work the periodic table would not be possible. Johann DoberienerJohann Wolfgang Doberiener was a German apothecary who was born on the 13th of December 1780 and died on the 24th of bound 1849. Doberiener had petty(a) opportunity for formal schooling, and so he was apprenticed to a pharmacist. He began to read widely, and attended scientific lectures whenever he received the chance. In succession he became a professor at the University of Jena in 1810. During the period of 1815-29, Johann Doberiener arranged elements in suppose of their atomic weight. He sorted these elements into groups of three, which became known as the law of triads.He arranged them according to the atomic weight of the middle element to th e average atomic weight of the remaining two. Doberiener contributed indirectly toward the development of the periodic table. Though his method acting was discarded due to the fact it didnt use to all the elements, Doberiener gave rise to new ways to classify the elements which greatly helped in the creation of the periodic table. John Newlands John Alexander Reina Newlands was an English chemist who worked on the development of the periodic table. He was born in capital of the United Kingdom on the 26th of November of 1837 and died on the 29th of July 1898.He did not study at a normal school but was rather home schooled by his father. He went on to study at the Royal College of Chemistry. In 1863, he set up a practice as an analytical chemist and in 1868 he became the chief chemist at James Duncans London sugar refinery. He later left this profession and in 1864 published his concept of the periodicity of the chemical elements. He arranged all 62 elements (known at the time) into a table based upon the ascending order of the atomic weights. He observed that every 8th element in his table displayed similar properties.He named this discovery the Law of Octaves and stated that an element exhibits carriage that is similar to the eighth element preceding/succeeding it. John Newlands contributed indirectly to the development of the periodic table. Even though Newlands table was not accepted, his work helped to lead Mendeleev (the father of the periodic table) on the right surmount thus greatly contributing to creation of the periodic table. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and inventor. He was born in Siberia in 1834 and died in 1907.He is considered the father of the periodic table because he created the first version of the periodic table of element and used it to predict elements yet to be discovered. In 1849 his family move to St. Petersburg and Mendeleev entered the Main Pedagogical Institute in 1850. He studied s cience there and graduated in 1856. In 1863 Mendeleev was appointed to a electric chair in the University he studied in. In 1864 Dmitri Mendeleev produced his greatest achievement the periodic table of elements. He arranged the 66 elements known at the time by their atomic weight.By doing this he managed to organise them into groups possessing similar properties. If a crack existed in his table, he anticipated that a brand new element would one day be discovered and he predicted its properties. Some of the elements he predicted were later found and provided great evidence towards the accuracy of his table. Dmitri Mendeleev contributed directly towards the development of the periodic table since he developed it. Mendeleevs original periodic table of elements is the model of the modern day periodic table of elements and convey to his discovery we have a greater understanding of the universe. Henry MoseleyHenry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley was an English physicist who was born in England o n the 23rd of November 1887 and died on the 10th of solemn 1915 at Gallipoli. As a young boy Moseley studied at Summer Fields School where he was awarded a Kings scholarship to attend Eton College. In 1906, Moseley entered Trinity College of the University of Oxford, where he earned his bachelor-at-armss degree. In 1910, Moseley began to study under Sir Ernest Rutherford. In 1913, he moved back to Oxford, where he was given laboratory facilities. While at Oxford, Moseley mensurable the x-ray spectral lines of nearly all the elements known at the time.The results of his study showed a clear and simple progression of the elements that was based on the number of protons in the atoms nucleus, rather than the order based on atomic weights that was then the basis of the periodic table. Moseley contributed indirectly to the development of the periodic table. He discovered the atomic number of elements which revolutionised the way the elements were sorted. Now convey to him the modern pe riodic table is sorted by atomic number. Timeline of The Periodic Table 440 BCE Democritus and Leucippus put forward the idea of the atom, an indivisible particle that all matter is made of. 30 BCE Aristotle proposes his theory about the four elements which are earth, air, fire & water. He also proposes a fifth element aether, which the stars and planets were made of. 360 BCE Plato coins term the term elements. 1605 CE Sir Francis Bacon published The Proficience and Advancement of Learning which contained a description of what would later be known as the scientific method which is the acquirement of new knowledge or the correction of existing knowledge. 1661 CE Robert Boyle published The Sceptical Chymist which was a written work on the greenback between chemistry and alchemy.It also contained some of the first ideas of atoms, molecules, and chemical reactions. 1754 CE Joseph Black isolated carbon dioxide, which he called fixed air. 1778 CE Antoine Lavoisier wrote the first detaile d list of elements. The list contained 33 elements & differentiated between metals and non-metals. 1766 CE Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen was a colourless, odourless go down on that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. 17731774 CE Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Joseph sacerdotal independently isolated oxygen. 1803 CE John Dalton proposed Daltons Law which expound the bond between the components in a mixture of gases. 828 CE Jons Jacob Berzelius created a table of atomic weights and introduced letters to represent elements. 1828 CE Johann Doberiener developed groups of 3 elements with similar properties, which he called triads. 1864 CE John Newlands organised the known elements in order of atomic weights and observed resemblances between some elements. 1864 CE Julius Lothar Meyer develops an early version of the periodic table, with 28 elements classified by valence. 1864 CE Dmitri Mendeleev produced a table based upon atomic weights but organised periodically with ele ments of harmonious properties under each other.His Periodic Table included the 66 elements known at the time, classified by their atomic weights. 1894 CE William Ramsay discovered the grand Gases. 1898 CE Marie and Pierre Curie isolated radium and polonium from pitchblende. 1900 CE Sir Ernest Rutherford discovered the cause of radioactivity was decaying atoms. 1913 CE Henry Moseley discovered the atomic number of each of the elements which changed the way the periodic table was organised. 1940 CE Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson discover neptunium, the lightest and first synthesized transuranium element, found in the products of uranium fission. 1940 CEGlenn Seaborg arranged the transuranic elements (the elements after uranium in the periodic table) below the periodic table devising it easier to read. Reference List tutorvista. com. Daltons atomic Theory. ONLINE operational at http//chemistry. tutorvista. com/inorganic-chemistry/dalton-s-atomic-theory. html. Accessed 23 w ork 13. citycolligiate. com. Daltons atomic Theory. ONLINE open at http//www. citycollegiate. com/atomic_structureIXc. htm. Accessed 23 butt on 13. ausetute. com. Relative Atomic Mass. ONLINE Available at http//www. ausetute. com. au/atomicmass. html. Accessed 23 March 13. vogadro. com. Relative Atomic Mass, Ar. ONLINE Available at http//www. avogadro. co. uk/definitions/ar. htm. Accessed 23 March 13. en. wikipedia. org. Relative atomic mass. ONLINE Available at http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Relative_atomic_mass. 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