Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Occupational Theory And Well Being
occupational Theory And Well BeingThis discussion lead be flavour at the wellness guides of an single(a) and equal these beat on health, illness and well- being, in relation to occupational therapy. first of alone it giveing look at the mortal, identifying key aspects of their health and offbeat. Then it leave decoct on occupational therapy, looking at the impact occupational therapy foundation have on health and well-being. there be 2 appendices attached to enhance the readers knowledge hardly atomic number 18 non inbred to the discussion.It will be set come unwrap as an assignment with see the light headings.Nathan ComoThis discussion will be foc utilize on a 45 year old macrocosm c every(prenominal)ed Nathan. He is a first extension British National his p bents were born in Trinidad. In 1984 Nathan married and had a baby. Nathans wife left him, and the baby, when they baby was one. Nathan was unable to bang, went to his doctor and was given major tran quillizer medicinal drug. He was later diagnosed with schizophrenia (see appendix 1). A few age later, Nathan noniced he was struggling to breathe so went to his general practician (GP) who diagnosed him with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (see appendix 2). Nathan is an supple smoking car and has been since he was young. Nathan has not had a steady job since young merely does bring to defy his family. Nathan was neer a particularly memory accessible man entirely did begin to take part in the community when his intelligence was young and his neighbors were regular babysitters.This discussion will focus on the impacts of changes to ones health needs and the military group this has on their occupational balance. demarcational TherapyThere are various versions on the explanation of occupational therapy. The valet de chambre federation of occupational therapists (WFOT, 2004) defines occupational therapy as a profession concerned with promoting health and well-being through occupation. An occupational therapist views the participation in occupations as stimulate for an privateists health and wellbeing (Wilcock, 1993). It is important to remember that although occupations are often anticipate to be healthy or productive this is not always the gaffe as binge drinking, smoking and risky sports, dismiss all be described as occupations these could all have a detri noetic effect on ones health and wellbeing. It can be concluded that without the ability to peg occupations it can then be assumed that a soulfulness will not lead a healthy or productive life.occupational therapists aim to identify an individuals occupational identicalness. This can be described as who the individual sees themselves as and who they would like to aim to be (Duncan, 2006). People all have a antithetic view of who they are and how they see themselves in spite of appearance a community. This is important for occupational therapists to represent as each customer they meet with will have a take issueent occupational identity (another reference). Additionally it is core to an occupational therapist to establish the individuals occupational performance. This has been delineate as slightly kind of earnest and goal directed employment (Crabtree, 2003) or Duncan (2006) defines occupational performance as what his or her (the individual) bodily, cognitive and affectionate abilities are. Crabtrees (2003) definition of occupational performance includes the words meaningful activity. There is a striking debate among occupational therapists as to the meaning behind purposeful activity (and if this indeed the right word to be apply in a definition). A purposeful activity to one person whitethorn not be the same to someone else. For Nathan, carrying out simple universal tasks may be difficult due to his breathing, so a purposeful task may be to have a shower independently. For others a shower may just be seen as a introductory hu man need and not purposeful at all. It is all base upon the individual and what it style to them.When a person breaks an illness there occupational balance can be disturbed and they need to re-adjust their lives to ensure they hold to have an occupational balance. Occupational balance can be delimitate as a combination of self- maintenance, play, work and rest (Wilcock et al, 1997) or self-care, productiveness and leisure (Le Boutillier and Croucher, 2010). Additionally that it is through occupations that a healthy physical and genial wellbeing is obtained (Wilcock et al, 1997).The college of occupational therapy ( cot), 2006 suggests that individuals have a built in nonplus and need to be active and to partake in occupations. Occupation is primordial to the existence of individuals, groups and communities COT, 2006. Without occupations spate would never reach the potentials at heart themselves or the world, (Wilcock, 1993).The COT publish that if people are deprived of ac tivity or have limited access to a wide variety of occupations both their physical and psychogenic health will suffer. Children take part in occupations by and large to learn and develop whereas adults complete occupations to rear to the community and to be rewarded for their contribution. It can be very important to some that they establish a grapheme for themselves. For Nathan his roles at heart his life have developed and changed. He was a husband for a short eon, a father to Saul, but this was partially shared with his neighbours. It is reported by the COT, 2006 that the older generation use occupations to support their liberty and to give them a role within a community or society. Maintaining a act of occupations, that, have meaning to an individual, can provide a structure and sense of purpose and direction to life to an individual. Irrelevant of harm/disease an individual can carry out a mo which can provide facial expressionings of identity, normality and wellbei ng. Therefore any disruption to the routine thank to illness, injury or environ psychological challenges can lead to dissatisfaction, disorientation and distress for the individual. Occupation is, therefore, essential for good psychic health and wellbeing COT, 2006. When a person is unable to engage in occupation, whether due to personal, social or environmental factors, the occupational therapist works with her or him to develop skills, challenge inequalities and promote social inclusion COT, 2006.Occupational therapists trust that occupational competency (another reference) in eachday activities depends on the interaction between the individual their occupations (the things they do) and the individuals environment. It has been reported that an individuals wellbeing is directly related to the quality of this interaction. Duncan (2006) reports that when an individual is temporarily or permanently unable to relate or engage in the roles, relationships and certain occupations expe cted of someone of a similar age and ride within a particular culture, it can be assumed the individual has an occupational dysfunction. Kielhofner, 2009, states that occupational dysfunction occurs when an individual does not have the capacity to choose, perform or organise occupations or the ability to choose a pattern of occupational behavior that facilitates a quality of life.How would an Occupational therapist Assess and choose interventions for Nathan?Reed and Sanderson (1999) report that there are 7 key reasons why occupational therapists should use models and the advantages of a model base arrange. Models provide a link between theory and practice, define and focus the area of interest for the OT, provide a framework for valuatement, intervention and evaluation, contribute to a sound philosophical basis, use of common vocabulary to channel ideas, provides a professional unity and the use of common themes throughout all models such as concern for the individual, the va lue of human occupation and looking at an individual holistically. Although models give a good grounding and head start point for occupational therapists, it is important to remember they are just that a starting point. They do not include details on every aspect or outcome that may occur and they assume a basic knowledge of the key attributes expected of an occupational therapist. Models are utilize to guide practice but not to dictate. Models are sometimes used as the boundaries of the occupational therapy intervention, as practicians come across youthful patients with variable conditions and they may not fit neatly into an existing model. It is important for an occupational therapist to note that models are inclusive not exclusive and in these cases the practitioner should be experienced enough to notice the need to by chance adapt a model or develop a new one. An occupational therapist should besides be mindful of models become out of construe as practice is evolving all the time so using an old model may guide in out of date practice (Feaver and brook, 1993). Kielhofner (2009) discusses the Model of Human Occupation, within which he reports that volition (what set an individual has, the interests an individual considers satisfying and how an individual is able to interact within the world) leads to the choice of occupational activities (functional and dysfunctional occupations). If an individual has a mental health problem it may contribute to the individual being unable to assess their personal interaction within the world and may result in a change in how a person interacts within the world (Crist et al, 2000) resulting in a change in their occupations. Nathan has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, as a result his views and how he is viewed within society has changed. There is a lot of blot and stereotypes related to schizophrenia, a study by Angermeyer and Matschinger (2004) looked at the stereotypes a person with schizophrenia experiences. They concluded that the most common are people accept they are incompetent, unpredictable and also dangerous. As a result individuals with mental health illnesses find themselves socially excluded, with no one to turn to. For an individual such as Nathan who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia but has been receiving successful treatment for a number of years, this could be extremely frustrating. Morgan (2007) reports that people with mental health illnesses are the most excluded population. This statement is also supported by Le Boutillier and Croucher (2010).The definition of social inclusion is a debated one, it is highly inconsistent and comes with ambiguity. A report by Le Boutillier and Croucher (2010) argues that social inclusion is more than just sweet in community activity within the physical presence, as this doesnt needs imply that the individual feels include. Nathan began to attend community activities when his son was younger thanks to a family who would regularly babysit for him. They encouraged him to attend the local church and also become more concern within the community. It can be argued that although Nathan was actively involved in the community for a short while did he really feel included? The media portray schizophrenia in a bad light but highlighting the bad symptoms (mentioned earlier being incompetent, unpredictable and also dangerous) and not addressing the positive ones or identifying that it is a pliant illness. As a result it is often recorded that not only is it a stereotype of the individuals who do not suffer from a mental health illness but also it is often the individuals with the illness who feel they are incapable to socialising with others and being involved for fear of how they may react. Individuals feel fear and rejection, as a result of their mental illness, and everyplacelook a sense of connection and belonging. Le Boutillier and Croucher (2010) also identify that individuals who are not socially active wit hin their community still may feel socially included, again emphasising the fact that it is not just physically attending community activities which can cause an individual to feel included. some other authors report social inclusion as being the ability of an individual to fit into a community by conforming to its traditional set of housing, education and employment (Lloyd et al 2006). Others refer to social inclusion including the social, psychological and physical components but emphasising the individuals sense of belonging and the importance of a support network (Labonte, 2004). However Le Boutillier and Croucher (2010) report that feeling socially included must also include personal meaning, an individual should feel involved and feel connected to the community, not just simply an individual physically engaging within the community. Therefore all these views indicate that how the individual perceives themselves within a community will determine whether they view themselves a s socially included it is highly individual. From this information it would be hard to conclude as to whether Nathan was feeling socially excluded as it is an individual view. An occupational therapist would need to conclude with their service user what their view of social inclusion means to their specific environment. A study by Le Boutillier and Croucher (2010) report that the occupational aspects associated with social inclusion are self care, leisure, productivity, occupational deprivation, occupational alienation, occupational balance, habits, roles routines and occupational performance. It states that all these aspects help an individual to feel more socially included or may cause them to feel isolated depending.For occupational therapists, the three main occupational performance areas are self-care, leisure and productivity (work). A study completed by Moyer (2000) looked at the impact of work for individuals with mental health illnesses. He looked at work as a means of in tegrating into a community, not just as an income as work can be voluntary or within hearth commission. He identified that work helps to develop a persons confidence, identity and self-esteem. It also establishes a role for the person within a community. Nathan has not had a stable job since he left school but has been work constantly. The reasons behind his nomadic style are not clear but could be due to his schizophrenia and the social exclusion he receives when colleagues, employers or customers discover his illness. It has also been recently discussed by Sweetsur, 2009 that many individuals with a mental health illness are seen to be critically ill and are not seen as people who are able to carry out work when well. Sweetsur, 2009 also suggests that mental health institutions are not promoting people back to work or encouraging them to better themselves. If the people working with and for individuals with mental health illnesses are not promoting work then it is not surprisi ng that society has the view that people with mental health problems are incapable of working. If an individual is not working they will not be fulfilling the productivity aspect to ensure they have occupational balance.ConclusionFrom the to a higher place information it is clear to conclude that one key trend throughout this discussion is the prominence of client centred practice. The fact that every individual is different and there is no clear definition, model or practice that will fit two clients. Using this information it is very hard to establish Nathans particular health needs as the information provided is limited. Assumptions would need to be made in all aspects of his life.It is clear from the above that occupational therapists believe to ensure an individual is healthy they should partake in occupations which are purposeful and meaningful to the individual. When an individual becomes injured, has a disability or something affects their environment resulting in them no l onger being able to partake in occupations it causes an occupational dysfunction.Occupational therapists use models to help asses and implement plans for the individual although it is essential that the practitioner understands the limitations of models.ReferencesAngermeyer M and Matschinger H (2004) The Stereotype of dementia praecox and Its impact on favouritism Against People With Schizophrenia Results From a RepresentativeSurvey in Germany. Schizophrenia Bulletin 30(4) 1049-1061. Accessed 03.11.10 via http//schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/ case/30/4/1049.full.pdfBoyer G, Hachey R and Mercier, C (2000) Perceptions of Occupational Performance and Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Severe genial Illness. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health,15(2)1-15. Accessed 02.11.10 via http//0eb.ebscohost.com.serlib0.essex.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5hid=105sid=89328e11-b7d8-4de4-97ad-93b4e1890459%40sessionmgr104Cao V, Chung C, Ferreira A, Nelken J, Brooks D and Cott C (2010) Changes in Activities of Wives Caring for Their Husbands Following Stroke. Physiotherapy Canada, 62 (1) 35-43. Accessed 02.11.10 via http//0-web.ebscohost.com.serlib0.essex.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10hid=109sid=416f83bf-4f0b-4fbf-8f04-2db73ffdc44c%40sessionmgr111College of Occupational Therapists (2006) Recovering characterless lives the strategy for occupational therapy in mental health services 2007-2017. capital of the United Kingdom COT. Accessed 01.11.10 via http//www.cot.co.uk/MainWebSite/Resources/Document/ROL_Vision_2010.pdfCrabtree J (2003) Occupational Performance. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 17(2), 1-18Creek J (2010) The core concepts of occupational therapy A dynamic Framework for practice. capital of the United Kingdom Jessica Kingsley PublishersCrist P, Davis, C and Coffin, P (2000) The Effects of Employment and Mental Health postureon the Balance of Work, Play/Leisure, Self-Care, and Rest. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 15(1), 2 7-42Duncan E (2002) Foundations for Practice in Occupational Therapy. Elsevier Ltd, London.Feaver S and Creek J (1993) Models for practice in occupational therapy. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 56(2) 59-62.Gronkiewicz C and Borkgren-Okonek M (2004) Acute exacerbation of COPD nursing application of evidence-based guidelines. Critical Care nurse Quarterly, 27(4), 336-352.Honey A (1999) Empowerment versus power Consumer participation in mental health services. Occupational Therapy International, 6(4), 257-276Kielhofner, G (2009) abstract Foundations of Occupational Therapy Practice. F.A. Davis Company. Philadelphia, USALabonte R (2004) Social inclusion/exclusion dancing the dialectic. Health Promotion International, 19(9), 115-21. Accessed 02.11.10 via http//heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/1/115.fullLe Boutillier, C. Croucher, A. (2010) Social Inclusion and Mental Health, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73(3) pp.136 139Lloyd C, Tse S, Deane FP (2006) Communi ty participation and social inclusion how practitioners can make a difference. Australian e-journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 5(3) Accessed 02.11.10 via http//www.qldalliance.org.au/resources/items/2009/09/294410-upload-00001.pdfLloyd C, Waghorn G, Williams PL (2008) Conceptualising recovery in mental health rehabilitation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy,71(8), 321-28Molineux M (2004) Occupation for Occupational Therapists. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford. http//books.google.co.uk/books?hl=enlr=id=-UeXMIL3B0Coi=fndpg=PR9dq=Molineux+social+exclusionots=-HzrxHwTFmsig=C1vzJYcR7HY6IcdicghK5D5aQAIv=onepageq=Molineux%20social%20exclusionf=falseMorgan C, burn T, Fitzpatrick M, Pinfold V and Priebe S (2007) Social exclusion and mental health Conceptual and methodological review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 477-483. Retrieved 01.11.10 from http//bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/191/6/477Petty T (2000) COPD interventions for smoking cessation and improved ventilatory function. Geriatrics, 55(12), 30.Reed K and Sanderson S (1999) Concepts of Occupational therapy (4th Ed). Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Maryland, Usa. Accessed 02.11.10 via http//books.google.co.uk/books?hl=enlr=id=1ZE47g_IRTwCoi=fndpg=PR7dq=occupational+therapy+modelsots=sJkzgUie_Psig=6z3WRZ5AlTAfifSKZqPkkkO_n68v=onepageq=occupational%20therapy%20modelsf=falseReilly M (1962) Occupational Therapy Can Be One Of the Great Ideas of 20th century Medicine. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 16 (1) 87-105. Accessed 16.10.11 via http//moodle.essex.ac.uk/file.php/1640/future_OT.pdfSchermer T, Weel C, Barten F et al. (2008). Prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care position paper of the European Forum for Primary Care. Quality in Primary Care. 16 (5), p363-377.Sweetsur D (2009) Schizophrenia and the work ethic is it time to stop thinking and start doing? Mental Health Occupational Therapy, 14 (3) 106-107WFOT (2004) What is OT? Retr ieved 13-10-2010 from http//www.wfot.org/information.aspWilcock A (1993) A theory of the human need for occupation. Occupational attainment Austrialia, 1 (1) 17-24Wilcock A, Chelin M, Hall M, Hamley N, Morrison B, Scrivener L, Townsend M and Treen K (1997) The relationship between occupational balance and health A pilot study Occupational Therapy International, 4(1), 17-30. Accessed 02.11.10 via http//0-web.ebscohost.com.serlib0.essex.ac.uk/ehost/detail?vid=11hid=109sid=416f83bf-4f0b-4fbf-8f04-2db73ffdc44c%40sessionmgr111Yuil C, Crinson I and Duncan E (2010) Key Concepts in Health Studies. intelligent Publications Ltd. London. Accessed 04.10.10 via http//www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13029/49397/49397.pdfAppendix 1SchizophreniaWhen someone believes untrue things closely their cultural society and has considered to have lost touch with reality they are generally diagnosed with a form of psychosis such as schizophrenia (Morrison et al 2008). Psychosis itself is a persons belief in events in reality that are speculative or unreal (NHS, 2010). Individuals who develop schizophrenia are will never be the same as another schizophrenic as they all bring their own individual experiences and symptoms (NICE,2010).Other mental illness involve psychosis, but what separates schizophrenia from bipolar disorder (a.k.a manic depression) for instance, is that the patients problems are not centred exclusively around their mood (Morrison et al 2008). Schizophrenics may also, believe that they have great powers and abilities (Morrison et al 2008), have strange changes in behaviour or find it difficult to concentrate even on everyday tasks (NHS, 2010). It is quite accomplishable that Nathan could be further diagnosed as having paranoid schizophrenia as his symptoms generally relate to this form of psychosis. Negative symptoms for the illness also exist such as low mood and being social withdrawn (NHS, 2010).There is some confliction within literature as it seems that persona l and professional ideas differ with regards to recovery from schizophrenia (Rethink 2010). Professionals may view recovery as totally overcoming the symptoms of the illness, most patients, carers and some organisations try to view recovery in wrong of achieving personal goals and targets such as returning to work or having an active social life (Rethink 2010 Morrison et al 2008). While some research suggests that some patients do make a full recovery (but often over very long periods of time), there is still variation between individuals and it is not the case for everyone (Morriosn et al 2008). For these individuals, finding ways of managing their illness through medication and therapy in order to rebuild their lives to a level that they can cope with, gives them and their carers their own personal sense of recovery (Morrison et al 2008).NICE, 2010 report that inequalities in mental health services are common and especially for clients from Afro-Caribbean origins to access UK se rvices.